Panaque and similar Plecos Panaque spp.

Royal Blacklines Pleco
Royal Blacklines Pleco
Royal Blacklines Pleco
There are several similar Panaque plecos, most called some combination of Royal and Lines. This is thought to be one of the Black Lines Royal Panaques, Panaque sp. cf nigrolineatus, but there are several of those (mainly L027a,b,c,d). It may instead be the Golden Line Royal Panaque (L027C), Panaque sp. cf ambrusteri. Many similar species remain undescribed. They are all native to Amazon and Orinoco tributaries. They are mainly nocturnal and can grow to over 40cm. They have small flaps over the nostrils and underside sucker mouths. Diet is mainly plant matter but, unusually, includes wood which is important for their health and which they can digest.
Royal Blacklines Pleco
Royal Blacklines Pleco
This pleco is usually called the Gold Royal Panaque or the Goldline Araguaia, Panaque sp. cf nigrolineatus or Panaque sp. cf ambrusteri. It is native to the Rio Araguaia in Brazil. It also eats wood.
Papa Panaque? The Papa Panaque, Panaque bathyphilus, (L090), are large, armoured, nocturnal catfish growing to some 40cm long. Amazonian and with flowing, threadfin tails, their diet is also algae and wood.
Imperial Panaque This monster armoured catfish looks like an elephant (with trunk and ears). It is said to be the Imperial Panaque, another of the panaque species yet to be described by science. Nocturnal, Amazonian and wood-eating.