(Mountain) Apollo Butterfly Parnassius apollo

Mountain Apollo butterfly
Mountain Apollo butterfly
Mountain Apollo butterfly
The Apollo Butterfly, also called the Mountain Apollo, is found in mountainous regions of much of Europe and Central Asia. It is a large butterfly with wingspan ranging from some 60mm up to 95mm. Distribution is local and there are a large number of isolated subspecies - some in danger of extinction through changes in land use, butterfly collectors, acid rain pollution and other causes. Those shown were in the mountains of southeast Kazakhstan, photos by Alexandra Makhnina.
Mountain Apollo butterfly
Mountain Apollo butterfly
Mountain Apollo butterfly
Although they don't have tails, they are technically included in the "Swallowtail" family (Papilionidae). The Apollo with the yellow eyespot (instead of the usual red) may be a well-faded orange or may be a yellow variant? The one with the red eyespots is a female with a gelatinous "mating plug" deposited on her by the male to prevent her mating again with another partner.
The eggs laid will over-winter before hatching. The red-spotted black caterpillar takes 2 years before pupating.